Страницы меню навигации

The study of consumer behavior of large market segments in Russia: generational approach.

ShevchenkoDmitryAnatolyevich,

 Ph.D., Professor. Head. Univ. marketing and

promotion of the Russian State University for the Humanities

 

The study of consumer behavior of large market segments in Russia: generational approach.

 

Keywords.

Generation of “baby bumers”, “X», «Y», «Z». Consumption patterns. Sociology of consumption. Social Stratification. Postindustrial society. Consumer behavior. Socio-demographic and psychographic analysis of the market consumption. Generational approach.

 

Abstract.
This article refers to the study of consumer behavior as a value-oriented practice of participation of large groups of people (generations) in consumption. The growth process post industrialization our social development, pose theorists and marketing professionals need to study the social phenomena of consumer behavior, which show large groups (segments) of the population, what are the generation.

 

In Russia the consumer markets are characterized by a rapid rate of growth.[1] High dynamics with the developing markets in Russia do not allow to speak specifically about the well-established practice of consumer behavior. However, the daily nature of the process of life of large groups of people and their consumer behavior in particular, to empirically capture the real purchasing activities and preferences.[2]  The purpose of the product due to the social situation is long-term and constant, which allows the researcher to capture the trends and sustainable consumption. In consumption, people often prefer some products, services, activities, events to others, because they relate to the acquisition of a certain way of life.

Consumption models allow us to better understand the attitudes and values of consumers[3]. Unique facts acquire different social groups of goods and services do not provide a reasonable basis for identifying the prevailing styles of consumption. Set of goods and services, the choice of different levels of quality, the range of preferences consistent with the understanding of their own consumer lifestyles. Researchers observing the set of repeated practice, it can identify people stable performance characteristics of their social roles. The symbolic value of products, preferred and purchased by individual groups (segments) of consumers shows a certain style of life. So, the attitude to yourself, other people, family, parenting, power and so on, to whole society.[4]

Sociological approach consumer marketing research.

With the transition to a market economy in modern Russian society consumption becomes more and more important to the change in the dominant social structure.[5]Сonsumption, consumer behavior of different social groups claim the status of the economic basis of the nature of social stratification. Sociological, as economic analysis of consumer attitudes and orientations eliminates emotional assessment of the facts in the consumer behavior of different groups of generations.[6]

We believe that generational theory provide a great opportunity to describe the practice of modern consumer Russians than the analysis of consumption patterns selected segments of certain goods and services. Generational approach to consumption patterns of different age groups allows the researcher marketing “breathe” fresh blood into a solid as a rock demographics, to better understand the preferences and demands of everyday people. Demografika can describe those who buy and psihografika can understand why people do it, what are their motivations and installation.[7]

Generation characterized by typical anthropogenetic, social, psychological, ideological, moral, and ethnic and cultural characteristics similar cultural values, social experience and lifestyle..[8] For sociology of l consumption it is actually that different consumption patterns of large groups of the population depending on age restrictions. [9] In market research consumer behavior, the combination of approaches depending on the age and culture of behavior is determined by the term age subculture.[10]

In the works of the classics of sociology, in contrast to other research approaches (demography, anthropology, history) uses an intergenerational approach that considers all living at the same time as one generation.[11]

Apply the concept of generation in historical and cultural studies, at first was launched by K. Mannheim, Ortega and Gasset. Russian sociologists try to understand this phenomenon in the light of Russia’s historical reality.[12]

In sociology the main feature of intergenerational approach is the differentiation of value orientations of different generational groups conducting their livelihoods in one time and in a social context, under the influence of the media.

Generation in sociology considered as demographic and socio-cultural community close to each other in age people (cohort). The concept of generations is not always strictly related to the concept of age.[13] However, the generation can not be understood not his age boundaries. That’s why researchers identify younger (younger), medium (generation of mature individuals) and old (elderly). That’s why like-lexical meaning to generations are synonyms descendants, peers, peers, contemporaries.

In the context of the study of consumer behavior marketing experts use the term “young”, “mature” and “gray” market.[14] These markets are in a certain autonomy in relation to each other. For them has its specific only to them consumer practices and models (Paterna). Modern studies indicate that there is inter-generational transmission of culture, information flows generated from one generation to another, including from children to parents.[15] In the works are marked existence of linguistic features of the generations that impede cultural an interaction.[16] However, intergenerational issues, especially in the growth of global processes in the culture of consumption and still is the subject of current research.[17]

Increase the significance of radical changes in the socio-economic relations of the Russian society of the last decade has contributed to the emergence of consumer units, mostly young people, focus on the values of wealth, power, social success.[18]  

For most of today’s young people is more common consumer behaviors inherent to western values and way of life (individualism, the desire for luxury, pragmatism) that are actively forming media propaganda: television, advertising, and other media.[19]  At the same time, the consumption patterns of behavior condemned by the older generation, makes them active protest, increasing intergenerational anomie.[20]  

The concept of “generation” captures the point the fault of social and cultural order, the specific rules of orientation and identity, subculture, “their” rules of conduct, and therefore “own” the rules and styles of consumer behavior. Therefore, we appeal to the subject of the consumer behavior of generations of modern Russia.

Generational theory and market segmentation.

It is necessary to listen to the opinion of some experts, who is business forecasts, which indicate that in the near future classic marketing will not be able to react to dynamic changes in the society. In this sense, the core values of generations become an important reference for researchers laws of development of the consumer market. Understand and observe these values helps modern generational theory. The theory of generations was set up in 1991, the authors of the excellent article Sheinis E., Antipov A., American researchers are Neil Howe and William Strauss. Plunging American history analysis, they found a significant pattern: they found that the majority of people in certain historical periods have similar values.[21]

For Western studies such object was a middle class society. He is a carrier and the owner of a high level of income and can not afford the high cost of education, food, cultural life. Rossi’s concept of the middle class is a bit controversial debate, particularly when sociologists try to quantify. [22]

Segment, in this context, the consumer market – is a group of customers with similar needs and demands of exercising their purchasing behavior in one place at one time. Segmentation of the market – it is a way to separate the potential market of (customer segments), i.e. into distinct groups of customers who react the same or similar manner to the various product offerings. The identity of the reaction can separate them from other groups of consumers who are otherwise, but with characteristic equally responsive other product offerings.[23]

In the theory of generations, are five types of cohorts with different values, world views, styles of consumption, but living (coexisting) at one time and in one space, which can be considered as a major market segments.[24]

American sociologists have developed their own cohort classification.[25] Russian classification is based on the American, however, takes into account has its own characteristics and specific features. Identifies five major generations living in a modern society.

“Silent” generation (years of birth: 1923-1943). Values of this generation were formed before 1953.

Generation of “baby boomers” or “boomers” (from the word “boom”), which characterized the post-war baby boom and during the “thaw” of 1943-1963, their values were formed before 1973.

Generation “X”  denotes “unknown” generation. Birth years are 1963-1983. Values of this generation were formed before 1993.

Generation «Y» (also known as generation of “web” or generation of “Millennium”). Members of this generation leave school in the new millennium, the years of birth are 1984-2000. Their values are formed and now.

Generation «Z». Year of birth – 2000 – 2020’s., Their values being formed.[26] 

Let us dwell on the specifics of four models of consumer segments (cohorts) of consumers.

 «Baby boomers» generation.

«Baby boomers» generation («Baby Boomers”) are people born in the boomers. Their appearance is historically associated with the end of the Second World War 1939 – 1945’s and the subsequent population explosion. Today, the “baby boomers” are people aged 45 to 65 years. To understand how strong the target group is the “baby boomers”, suffice to say that the generation of post-war baby-boomers are Barack Obama, Vladimir Putin. “Baby boomers” make up a large part of consumers, their needs and way of life have a powerful impact on the economy.

For example, according to the magazine MediaGuardian, the UK baby boomers own more than 466 billion pounds of personal savings in the country and do not mind them to spend. The study of this age shows that they have a lot in common with young people, for example, they are also frequently visit pubs and restaurants, but can afford to spend more than teens.

On the attitudes and psychology generation of “baby boomers” influced known events: Khrushchev’s “thaw”, the conquest of space, the “cold war” with the U.S. and Western Europe, the first plastic surgery and creation of contraceptives.[27]  This generation has tasted the notion of “sex” and “profit”, except compulsory military service and distribution after graduation, this generation has a guaranteed health care and social insurance. The relative economic stability and the disappearance of queues and shortages contributed to the emergence of psychology winners.

Their values: optimism, interest in stability and economic welfare at the same time, teamwork and team spirit, friendship, honesty, self-confidence, caution and the cult of youth. For “boomers” shop – a place of purchase. The visit to the store is a necessity rather than a journey. The main purpose of the process of buying the product performs. If the “Boomers” are in need of certain goods and services, they will actively seek them, even if the product is in the store, which is located on the other side of town.

“Boomer” loved retailers. This generation of excellent experts. Things, furniture and clothes they value in terms of functionality and durability. Members of this generation are not too lazy to go to several stores to make sure that they will be the right choice of products and cost effective. When choosing appliances, durable goods, they will assess their capabilities and warranty service. For them is important to inform friends and family about buying a new, original, interesting products. They care about most, not packaging, as of status goods. Product packaging must conform to their world view. Choosing a product, making a decision to buy, they are looking for an answer to the question: how the product / service can improve their status, why it should be bought. It is this generation may be called the leader of branding awareness.

Generation of “boomers” grew up in a time when there was a variety of foods. The phrase: “Thursday – fish day” or “Saturday” this generation causes psychological stress.

 Members of this generation are willing to take in their diet new products. However, inherent in their memory, that of the most delicious food – it’s their family specialties: cake “Napoleon”, “herring under a fur coat”, jelly, pickles and chips. Symbol of celebration and events remain red caviar, champagne, mandarins and chocolates. This generation of the collective time, feasts and celebrations. In their homes full refrigerator products. Studying the goods, “boomers” draw attention to the benefits of the product. They believe that drugs and medicines there to save them from disease. They are willing to treat long and hard, dream pospast a sanatorium in order to be diagnosed and humanly ‘rest’. Visiting Physicians is a common procedure for them, where they can stand in line to see a doctor more than one hour.

Lucky you, this generation of “stagnation” and “restructuring”? Both “yes” and “no.” There are 101 billionaires in the list of the magazine «Forbes» and 70 of them by age over 50 years. However, believing in the communist miracle, this generation, as well as patriotic old – retirees still waiting for change “from above” and is no different in the weight of high social and professional activity. This is the most controversial generation.

Generation “X”.

Generation “X” (“unknown” generation, birth years – 1963-1983, their values were formed before 1993.) Events that have shaped their values: the continuation of the “cold war”, the restructuring, AIDS, drugs, wars in Afghanistan and Chechnya.  

Their values are: the ability to change, thinking of your choice, high awareness, technological literacy and quality education, the desire to learn throughout life, the search for acute emotion, individualism and pragmatism, hope for himself, the desire for leadership, recognition of equality of the sexes, a strong confidence in itself, the search for well-being, diligence, honesty and friendliness.

During the formation of values Generation “X” appeared large format stores – supermarkets and hypermarkets. This circumstance has affected consumer stereotype generation. For this generation going to the store – it is, first of all, the purchase of essential goods. It is also important to purchase can be done nearby. This point is also caught by a representative of the average retail business and proposed format store “near the house.” This generation is ready to spend more money on their convenience, the opportunity to purchase many different good quality products in one place, making it very fast and save time. Chain retailers have long dreamed of such a buyer and now supermarket chains and hypermarkets opened the doors to the proposals of individual goods and services.

For the generation of the “X” is important to emphasize their individuality and uniqueness. At the stage of making buying decisions in the evaluation of options products, this generation tends to independence. It is characterized by the decision to purchase without pressure from the reference groups. The company IKEA quite caught this trend and suggested the idea of individuality in search of architectural hardware suburban apartments and holiday homes. The buyer has the opportunity to play the IKEA concept and find your own individual style residential environment.

Purchasing behavior of this generation can be expressed in words, “add his personality, create such a thing, which will not be nobody else.” Assessing the options of your choice Product Generation “X” so says: “Surprise me, and I’ll buy it.” According to the representatives of this generation, if the person himself by nature is unique, it must obtain a unique product. Weighing the options for the future purchase of goods, they are looking for the answer to your question is that this product or service is just “my” for me. Sign of prosperity for this generation – a new interesting and necessary product. They are ready for a long time to try, test and explore new products.

If the “Boomers” tend to try a new product in order to buy it, eat and “tick”, the generation of the “X” is trying to make sense of how a particular product meets their needs and expectations. Members of this generation can listen to the opinion of close and friends carefully and repeatedly hear and see advertisements for a particular product, but it is important to try it yourself. Considering the packaging, they study the information, pay attention to the composition of the product. Generation “X” are the main consumers of fast foods. They carefully rational refer to the use of their free time. This time menedzhemnta pioneers. especially fast foods liking women who organize the business. Stationary Moscow cafe “Kroshka Kartoshka” named is beautifully realized entrepreneurs and family visitors chain supermarkets, especially with children. Sunday now turning to them on an exciting journey with friends in the big shopping centers where adults can sit with my friends, and the kids swim, play games, animators who organize.

Generation “X” to know all the charms of the petrol crisis, so they tend to buy practical cars. They first went to the diesel fuel. There are varieties of small car, which differ in cost-effective and convenient for city parking.

Here’s how to comment and advertises mini cars 2013 special web-site “Automobile portal”. “Residents of the provincial areas will never understand how the size of a car can affect the comfort of operation, when the extra two feet on the stern will not squeeze into the only free parking space. In large cities, the compact size of the car sometimes vital and full of A-class, which many consider a purely female, can greatly facilitate the movement of the city. Traditionally, the trendsetters in this segment are the Europeans and the Japanese, who are well aware of the overcrowded cities. And when it seemed that the subcompact market is already fully developed, their claim to a part of the concern expressed by Volkswagen, which hast just three such vehicles from related brands: Volkswagen Up, Skoda Citigo and Seat Mii. The three of them probably will soon appear in Russia, which could significantly affect the balance of power in the segment».[28]

Generation “X” are active consumers of drugs that instantly relieve symptoms of pain and discomfort. They need to be kept operational. Hike to the doctor takes them only when absolutely necessary, and not in a local clinic, and paid the medical center. They better spend the extra money, but do not spend too much time. Their main slogan: “time is a money!”. Wealthier members of this generation use the services of “Family Doctor”. Need for quality and, importantly, rapid laboratory diagnosis assessed ‘INVITRO’, which now offers more than 1,000 types of studies. The results of the laboratory shall send by e-mail.

For the generation “X” is one of the most important in the scale of values the knowledge and education. It is they have two and three education completed an MBA with a degree in western universities and colleges. For this generation, it is important to obtain and have an education than the educational process and its consequences. They least spare the money for their education and the education of their children, believing that it is an investment in the cultural capital of their child’s personality.

They want to learn and share their thoughts, ideas and opinions with other people. This is especially noticeable in the social networks. Value systems and consumption patterns of Generation “X” metaphorically and figuratively represented in today’s generational novel O. Sivuna “Brand”[29]

 

Generation «Y».

Generation «Y» is called as generation “network” or generation “Millennium”, and its representatives were finishing high school in the new millennium. Birth years – 1984-2000.

Today the value of generation «Y» is forming. Events that have shaped their values: the collapse of the USSR, military conflicts and terrorist attacks, explosions skyscrapers in the New York and the Moscow Metro, the appearance of social networks, the development of sites for WEB 1.0 WEB 2.0 and WEB 3.0 Mobile phones and applications, Internet services and postindustrial world view.

Era generation «Y» is an era brands. Among these leaders: «iPad» and «iPhone». Their values are: civic duty and moral responsibility, dignity and freedom. But, with psychology, emphasized their innocence and willingness to obey. This generation of pragmatic individualists and advocates honesty. At the forefront for them out immediate gratification. They are more than other generations, defend their point of view and respect. Supermarkets and hypermarkets are more fun place than the place of purchase.

If the members of the generation “X” usually come to the store alone, the generation of «Y» prefer to come with friends. Shopping for this type of generation is a cultural center where people go for a walk, have a cup of coffee, watch a movie, listen to music. Today, supermarkets and shopping centers include not only shops, but also restaurants, cafes, cinemas, swimming pools, fitness centers. It is expected that soon the stores will be teaching and advises centers. When choosing a product is important for them to try the product. They want to make a buying decision easy, playing and having fun.

 A careful look at the diet and eating habits are visible characteristic differences between the generations. “Silent” generation that grew up in the postwar famine, very carefully refers to food. For them, it is important that products were many, and they were satisfying. Therefore, nourishing soups, three-course dinner, and there are a lot of jar of jam and canned vegetables in the fridge. Considering the product from all sides, the “silent” generation draws attention to the expiration date. For a generation of «Y» is important that the food was delicious and, most importantly, useful. If the generation of the “X” were the main consumers of fast foods (an ecomony of the time), the generation of «Y» – this is a vegetarian restaurant and molecular cuisine. They believe proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The packaging, they pay attention to the percentage of fat, vitamins and minerals, the energy value of the product. Understanding this fact,”McDonald’s” menu input indicator calories.

This generation is characterized by concern for the environment. When choosing a car, they are more likely to pay utmost attention to the environmental impact. They are careful and law-abiding. Trying to cross the street on a green light, tend to observe traffic rules, pay all taxes. Read a lot, follow fashion and actively attend discos. It should be noted that, unlike the generations of “boomer” generation and the “X” generation «Y» – this “sober” generation. They are less prone to collective holidays and feasts. They are more concerned about finding yourself and your own business, creativity and business. Culture, music, painting, reading “smart” books in a cozy cafe has a style of leisure is the basis for the emergence of creative groups and personal communication.

Both Boomers and Generation “X” are well aware that the composition of drugs is identical, so it’s like a drink. Generation «Y» selects exclusively medicine branded. Making a choice between acetylsalicylic acid and aspirin, they will prefer to buy the latter, and the company Upsa or Bayer. For this generation of advertising and a great tool to inform consumer choice. Technology for their actions in the decision making process of buying the following. They are watching a commercial, and then study it to the internet, discuss it with your friends purchase, and only then make a decision.

Generation «Z».

Generation Z. Years during 2000-2020 years. Values and models of consumer behavior is in its infancy. The influence of internal and external environment gives us some reason to identify these features in the behavior of this generation as the desire for complete freedom. Tattoos, participation in various niche cultural groups stressed their desire to find their own individuality and uniqueness. This generation is less influenced by brands, because they themselves are actively seeking to become a brand, sometimes at any cost.

This is a generation of “tin”, demonstrating uncompromising in defending their own interests and ideas. At the same time, avoid all that manual labor and stress. Attempts to drag the youth in technical college, “destroying” human, do not lead to success.

Russia is gradually taking on the traits of stability, vertical power increases, the large companies absorb smaller, weaks die, the strong grow stronger. Terrorist attacks and the war are becoming commonplace life. Living conditions and their effect on the behavior of a generation «Z» more will resemble the “silent” generation (1923-1943), their ancestors. A generation «Z» grow idealists. As well as the “silent” generation, it will also be saved from its “Stalinist” in the world of books and virtual reality.

The researchers note that this generation is generation of creators, artists and musicians. This is the most creative generation that knows no boundaries of language in communication. All they know and speak English, write poems and compose music. For them the world – a world of virtual freedom and individual computer.[30]

For the consumer value consciousness, the current generation of «Z», characteristic is the fact that young consumers will not “set” on the profession and destiny. They are rational, calculated and shape their behavior according to the situation, “here and now” and “not later tomorrow.” They believe that they will live forever! For the consciousness of young people is more common not to set long-term plans and goals. This is a pragmatic mind.

As the consequence it is no desire to do something for a long time, to learn, to study, to analyze. It is the characteristics of the style trends in consumer behavior generation «Y» and «Z».

Hyperreality and value systems of marketing consumption.

Along with the “clean” generation, there are “borderline”, when one person mixed quality of several generations, especially if raised elderly parents and grandparents. Generational change as “slow” and the fact that sometimes children live a long time with their parents and, therefore, remain committed to the values of two generations. The theory of generations requires the analysis of social trends that are characteristic of modern society. Modern marketing must consider some fundamental changes in the world that are external factors that form value consciousness generation «Y» and «Z».

The real world is more and more replaced by hyper-real world where reality is the basis of at work, the ability of people, technological power producer, and symbols. Marketing needs to consider these issues and to work in the system of hyperreality.

For modern world of consumer society it characterized blurring the line between the sexes, professions. For many years, society has a rigid structure in the system (most, simplistic division of people: workers, peasants, intellectuals, employees) in the modern world society is structured a lot, but for other variables (not associated with industrial and post-industrial society), people unite on the basis of sympathy, symbols, hopes and emotions. This is clearly seen in social networks.

Production is no longer the creator of the value of the goods, and consumption is not the stage at which the destruction of the goods.

Fundamentally changes the approach to pricing. Traditional pricing plan formed mainly based on the characters – consumer value characteristics of the goods and services. The role of the cost in the price of goods and services are no longer play a decisive role in determining the final price. Exchange value is replaced by the sign value, which is the “compass” of the modern consumer. As a result of corporate culture is losing its dominant role comes into play culture of consumption. Symbols of consumption are not created or occur separately by the consumer or the producer. They are co-producers (sellers) and consumers.

Modern manufacturer, if he sets the task to be competitive, marketable forms (assortment) and pricing strategy is in dialogue with the consumer. In place of mass marketing comes customized marketing (custom cars, cruises and other sets of services, including on-line).

The process needs mediated value, meaning that a person is guided in consumer behavior. Researchers of the GIM Russian’s Company believe that the choice of a brand is largely determined by the correspondence of values that are relevant to a particular customer group.

For example, young people (Generation «Y») lack confidence in themselves and they are the least value stability. As they get older (generation “X”), stability moves up the scale of values, and for those over 40 and over (“boomers”), then the stability is the top line, along with the value of “friendship” in the scale of values.

Differences in values, depending on age, are clearly visible on the table below.

Pic. Actual values of generations.[31]

Family

Family

Family

Self confidence

Friendship

Friendship

Friendship

Self confidence

Stability

Safety

Stability

Honesty

Honesty

Honesty

Self confidence

Welfare

Safety

Safety

Stability

Freedom

Keep in shape

18-29 years

30-39 years

40-55 years

 

If the closer the age limit, the greater will need for security is important. This age is not hope, but fear for their future.[32]

 Studies in the GIM Russia confirm that brands are more or less associated with the basic values. In cases where the advertising campaign takes this into account, the result could be higher.

For example (data GIM Russia), with a brand value of Bosch associates “stability” is relevant to “Boomer” generation and «X». This same audience is the key to buy household appliances. This is the value of a conceptual framework for advertising Bosch.[33]

Each new generation is a filter that rejects from the proposed older generations, leaving viable for themselves. Each new generation – is a mirror in which the older generation has the opportunity to see their consumer “I am.”

We are entering a more mature stage of the consumer society, seeking their own individuality in the clothes of “independent” labels, see the “independent” films, listen to “alternative” music, go to the ‘alternative’ clubs, etc. At the same time, we remain dependent on the brand characters, the desire to build their own concept of “self-brand.”[34].

Media and advertising increasingly fill our minds and senses that it is necessary to wear, drink, eat, what to think, how and to whom to empathize. To understand how to conduct themselves, it is necessary to tell about it on TV, you need to have this pattern of behavior has been copied into the consciousness of thousands of people, that it was distributed to all, and not for one. If you do not talk about on television, then you, as stated by D. Bykov, nobody! Public relations (PR) are the most effective communication tool positioning personality otstraivaniya own personality and identity.

Исследование потребительского поведения различных социальных групп в теориях поколений дает возможность более полно представить механизмы управления таким сложным социальным процессом, каким являются потребительское поведение людей.

This analysis of the consumer behavior of large segments of the market, what are the generation, confirms theoretical axiom of marketing segmentation: the needs and desires of consumers change as people from one age group to another.[35]

 

 



[1]See the details. Berezin I.S.: the largest consumer markets in Russia: volume, dynamics and prospects. Report of Russian business. M. Belovodye, 2010.

[2] Consumer behavior: the processes that take place during the implementation of the individual hotel or group of people select, purchase, use and disposal of a variety of goods, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy their needs and wishes. See D. Shevchenko Advertising, marketing, PR. -M. (Nc) 2012, p. 143

[3]Faris A. Plants and behavior / personality. Culture. Society, 2011., T. 13. No. 1 (№ № 61-62), p.26-32

[4] In marketing practice studies of the behavior of different customer segments using the principle of behavioral segmentation (behavioral segmentation). In accordance with consumer groups are divided according to the nature and stability of the acquisition of certain goods. For example, users of the goods – goods not users, regular users – occasional users. Market segments, in these cases, are determined based on consumer behavior. See D. Shevchenko Advertising, marketing, PR. – M. (nc) 2012.

[5] Shevchenko D.A. Market and market relations in Russia: Economic and Sociological Analysis / / Practical Marketing. “M., 2011, № 3.

[6] Toshchenko J.T. Sociology: General Course: Manual. aid for students. Moscow: Prometheus: Yurayt, 1994.2 ed. 1999, 3rd ed. 2005.

[7]Psychographic segmentation principle (psychographic segmentation -) unit buyers into groups, according to their social class (lower, upper), the style of life (swingers aesthetes), by type of personality (addicting nature, ambitious nature). Psychographic information collected through individual interviews, questionnaires, etc. This is also the segmentation by age and lifestyle of consumers (age & life-cycle segmentation) is a kind of market segmentation by age consumers, divided into four groups: 1) children 2 ) young people, and 3) adults, and 4) the elderly. This concept comes from the fact that the needs and desires of consumers change as people from one age group to another. See D. A. Shevchenko idem.

[8]See N. Golovin «Political socialization»: a theoretical and methodological basis of the study. http://www.dissercat.com/content/politicheskaya-sotsializatsiya-teoretiko-metodologicheskie-osnovy-issledovaniya

[9] Identification of different types of consumers, their separation (clustering) based on the preferences of the brands or products, the use of media, Internet resources, the choice of leisure activities, and in relation to such matters as the volume, politics and religion is based on the use of multiple specialized systems, such as : VALS – psychographic segmentation technique, which asserts that life is a reflection of the consumers of their internal values and their relationship to life. Research is being conducted on the following factors in determining their behavior: external factors, internal factors, a combination of the last two factors and the needs of consumers. As a result, they are divided into nine types: “Surviving”, “Patient”, “Belief”, “Imitate”, “Successful”, “Mavericks”, “Risk”, “Social concern”, “Integrated”. Methods VALS – 2. This improved method compared to VALS 1, partition the customers into 3 groups based on their prioritetenoy focus on: 1) the principle, and 2) status, 3) action. Consumers are then subdivided into eight types: “Realize,” “is / are executed,” “Successful”, “Risk”, “Belief”, “Strive”, “Practice”, “Resist”.

[10] Although the needs of all people are about the same, though consumers one age group will have more in common with each other than with a young or old customers. Features generations even more distinct when the lights make the opposite action, and pursue conflicting goals. It is about the struggle of generations. MR Sm.Solomn Consumer behavior. Art and science of winning in the market. – St., 2003, p. 623-650

[11] Conte A. Overview of positivism / Translated from French by I.A. Shapiro. Ed. E.L. Radlov. – Ed. 2nd. – Moscow: Booking House “LIBROKOM”, 2011.

[12]Mannheim K. The Problem of Generations / / Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge. London,1952 Favorites: Sociology of Culture. – Moscow-St.Petersburg.: University book 2000.Ortega Gasset H. Selected Works. Moscow, 1997, p.250-295, Boris Dubin Generation: sociological concepts border / / Monitoring of public opinion. 2002. № 2 (58). P.11-15; Zenkin S. N. “Generation”: The experience of the concept of deconstruction / / Generation in the socio-cultural context of the XX century. Pergamon Press, 2005, p. 130-136, Fathers and Sons: generational analysis of modern Russia / Ed. T.Shanina and Yu.Levady. Moscow: UFO, 2005; Artemov G.P. Generational structure of value priorities and moral attitudes of modern Russia / / Bulletin of St. Petersburg State University. No. 3. Ser. 6. 2011

[13]Glotov M.B. Generation as a category. Article 2004 / / http://ecsocman.hse.ru/data/295/764/1231/005.GLOTOV.pdf

 

[14] See Shevchenko D.A.Povedenie consumers: Theory and Practice Part 1. / / Personality. Culture. Society, 2012. T. 14. No. 3 (№ № 73-74), p.158-172

[15]Meed M. Culture and Commitment. A study of the Generation Gap. New York, 1970.

[16]Grazhdankin A., Dubinin V.,Tolstoy A. Five generations of Soviet society: a view from 1989 / / Sociology of Education. V.1. No. 1. Moscow, 1993.

[17]As part of the post-industrial consciousness requires a new perception and generation. Basic institutions destroyed, so the “new hero” in this situation it is necessary to develop appropriate principles of institutional and rethink the category of reality, says E. Toffler. See Toffler E. The Third Wave: Trans. from English. / E. Toffler. – Moscow LLC “Publishing AST», 2004.

[18] There are in the studies note that as a major economic factor determining the choice of profession, stands a model of success. See Klochkova O. Model of success as a factor in the professional choice: Author. 17. dis. … Candidate. Sociology. Science. Moscow: Moscow State University, 2003.

[19] U.A.Levada says: “In the coming years, the most active of generational group will be people that have entered into an independent life in the 1990s, that is, born about 1975-1980 years. Those who are not only free from the “Soviet” heritage and the memory of him, but is free from fractures and, expectations and disappointments of the past 15 years, the fight for what else social objectives. In fact, this is the first generation in a century pragmatists lacking historical social memory. “See: Fathers and sons: generational analysis of modern Russia / Comp. Yuri Levada, T. Shanin. M., 2005.

[20]The reasons for the lack of justification for the class or description of the stratification structure of Russian society are represented in the works of prominent sociologists Shkaratan O. Yastrebova G., Cordova S., etc. See, for example, Shkaratan O.I. «Etakratizm» and social system of Russian / / Social Science and modernity. 2004. Number 4. System of civilizations and of social-economic development of Russia and other post-communist countries of Europe / / World of Russia. 2010. Number 3; Hawks G. dual nature of stratification in contemporary Russia. Gazette opinion M., 2011, № 4 (110) Oct-Dec; Kordonskii SG Social class structure of post-Soviet Russia. Moscow: Institute of the “Public Opinion”, 2008.

[21]E. Shamis, Antipov A., Theory generations http://www.advertology.ru/article48762.htm 29.06.2007; Theory generation materials “Business Magazine» http://www.marketing.spb.ru/lib around / socio / generation.htm

[22] There is still no unambiguous understanding of the existence of the middle class in Russian society..

[23] See M. McDonald, J. Dunbar Market segmentation: A Practical Guide. – Moscow: Publishing House of the “Business and Service”, 2002; Khrutsky V.E., Korneev I.V. Modern marketing. Handbook of Market Research Publisher: Finance and Statistics 2002., Shevchenko D. Advertising, marketing, PR. M., 2012.

[24] See more about this in the materials / / Psychology and online business. http://www.psycho.ru/library/2581

[25] Generation of soldiers (born 1901-1924) Silent Generation (1925-1945), Baby Boomers (1946-1964), Generation X (1965-1977), Generation Y (1978 to 1994), Children of the new millennium (1995-2002 ). Source: Bonnie Tsui «Generaihion Next»?, Advertising Age, January 15, 2001, pp. 14 to 16.

[26] There are attempts to articulate the value generation «Z». Birth years – the end of the 90’s, 2000-2023. This generation of future values are in the formative stage. Is the statement that this generation of idealists, artists and musicians. Their world – a world they have created for myself in a computer network. Trip to the store and the selection of products will become for them a heavy responsibility.

[27] Shamis, E., Antipov A. Ordinance. Op.

[28] Automobile portal site http://autosuper.ru/gid/64947/ 2.03.2013

[29] Today’s world is shown in the novel as a kind of meeting, the combination of brands: Barbie Doll, Coca-Cola, Ford, Andy Warhol, Google, IKEA, Kodak, Lufthansa and others. Sivun A. Brand. Pop art novel. Publisher / Manufacturer: Colibri, 2009.

[30]Chumakov, Theory of generations / Commercial Director, 2008 http://www.svblog.ru/consult/KK-3/5/; Okolskaya L.A., Komogortseva M.V. Role models for girls in magazines: the rules achieve the life welfare Proceedings XII International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development. Part 3. Pub. House State University – Higher School of Economics, 2012. Pp. 121-130; Magoon V.S., Rudnev M.G. Basic values – 2008: Similarities and differences between the Russians and other Europeans / / Russia reformed. Moscow: Institute of Sociology, 2011, Magoon V.S. The dynamics of resource strategies of youth / / Issues of education. 2010. Number 1. –  66-73 pp.

 

 

 

 

[31] Dmitry Frolov. See idem

[32] From the figure, it is understood and obvious why Vladimir V. Putin’s team elected as its slogan of “stability.” There is no doubt that the age statistics vote for Putin in the mass of 50-70 years.

[33] As the result – according to the company Bosch, the consolidated turnover in Russia in 2008 amounted to 708 million euros, which is 16% more than in the previous year.

[34]“Reflections” S.K.  About the “brand” by Oleg Sivun and the phenomenon of “generational literature” http://magazines.russ.ru/novyi_mi/refl/refl_sk_11.html 7.12.2012.

[35] Shevchenko D.A. Advertising, marketing, PR. M.: (nc), 2012, p. 201

2 комментария

  1. Thank you for this point.
    I think this article is the best example of a huge contribution to the current marketing trends of science and the stimulus for many Russian and foreign scientists to explore more deeply the modern market of consumer behavior.

  2. Очень полезная и интересная статья! Спасибо!

Оставить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *